In the broadest definition, a sensor is an object whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment, and then provide a corresponding output. A sensor is a type of transducer; sensors may provide various types of output, but typically use electrical or optical signals. For example, a thermocouple generates a known voltage (the output) in response to its temperature (the environment). A mercury-in-glass thermometer, similarly, converts measured temperature into expansion and contraction of a liquid, which can be read on a calibrated glass tube.

Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base, besides innumerable applications of which most people are never aware. With advances in micro machinery and easy-to-use micro controller platforms, the uses of sensors have expanded beyond the more traditional fields of temperature, pressure or flow measurement,[1] for example into MARG sensors. Moreover, analog sensors such as potentiometers and force-sensing resistors are still widely used. Applications include manufacturing and machinery, airplanes and aerospace, cars, medicine and is also included in our day-to-day life.